Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 19, 2017

Registration No. 333-219782

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

__________________________

 

Amendment No. 1 to

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

__________________________

 

Atomera Incorporated

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware 30-0509586
(State of incorporation) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

750 University Avenue, Suite 280

Los Gatos, California 95032

(408) 442-5248

(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Scott A. Bibaud
Chief Executive Officer

Atomera Incorporated

750 University Avenue, Suite 280

Los Gatos, California 95032

(408) 442-5248

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

 

Copy to:

Daniel K. Donahue

Greenberg Traurig, LLP

3161 Michelson Drive, Suite 1000

Irvine, California 92612

(949) 732-6500

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: [_]

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: [X]

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering [_]

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registrations statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [_]

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   [_]

 

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  [_]

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act):

 

Large accelerated filer o Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company x
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company) Emerging growth company x

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. x

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of
each class of securities

to be registered
Amount to
be registered(1)

Proposed
Maximum

Offering Price
Per Unit(1)

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
registration fee(3)
 Common Stock, par value
 $0.001 per share
—   —   —   —  
 Preferred Stock, par value
 $0.001 per share
       
 Warrants       —     
 Debt Securities —   —   —   —  
 Units —   —   —   —  
Total —   —   $30,000,000.00 $3,477.00 (4)

__________________________

(1)Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D information is not required to be included. With respect to the primary offering, an indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder as shall have aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $30,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.

 

(2)The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with, and at the time of, the issuance of the securities and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3.

 

(3)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities listed.
   
(4) Previously paid.

 

__________________________

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed without notice. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement relating to these securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This prospectus is neither an offer to sell nor a solicitation of an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED SEPTEMBER 19, 2017

 

PROSPECTUS

 

$30,000,000

 

ATOMERA INCORPORATED

 

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

______________________

 

We may issue securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $30,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

 

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ATOM”. On September 18, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $4.87 per share.

 

On September 18, 2017, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was $53,652,697. We have not previously offered pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3 any securities during the prior twelve calendar month period that ends on, and includes, the date of this prospectus.

 

______________________________

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

______________________________

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

____________________________

 

The date of this prospectus is ____________, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

   
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
ABOUT ATOMERA INCORPORATED 1
RISK FACTORS 2
NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 2
THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 3
COMMON STOCK 3
PREFERRED STOCK 3
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 4
GENERAL 5
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 11
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 11
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 12
LEGAL MATTERS 14
EXPERTS 14
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 14
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $30,000,000.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. From time to time, we may provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 14 of this prospectus.

 

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We do not take any responsibility for, and cannot provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. Neither this prospectus nor any accompanying prospectus supplement constitutes an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Atomera Incorporated, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries.

 

ABOUT ATOMERA INCORPORATED

 

We are engaged in the business of developing, commercializing and licensing proprietary processes and technologies for the $350+ billion semiconductor industry. Our lead technology, named Mears Silicon Technology™, or MST®, is a thin film of reengineered silicon that can be applied as a transistor channel enhancement to CMOS-type transistors, the most widely used transistor type in the semiconductor industry. MST® is our proprietary and patent-protected performance enhancement technology that we believe addresses a number of key engineering challenges facing the semiconductor industry. We believe that by incorporating MST®, transistors can be smaller, with increased speed, reliability and energy efficiency. In addition, since MST® is an additive and low cost technology, it can be deployed on an industrial scale, with machines commonly used in semiconductor manufacturing. We believe that MST® can be widely incorporated into the most common types of semiconductor products, including analog, logic, memory and optical integrated circuits.

 

We do not intend to design or manufacture integrated circuits directly. Instead, we intend to develop and license technologies and processes that will offer the designers and manufacturers of integrated circuits a low-cost solution to the industry’s need for greater performance and lower power consumption. Our customers and partners are expected to include: 

 

  · foundries, which manufacture integrated circuits on behalf of fabless manufacturers;
     
  ·  integrated device manufacturers, or IDMs, which are the fully integrated designers and manufacturers of integrated circuits;
     
  ·  fabless semiconductor manufacturers, which are designers of integrated circuits that outsource the manufacture of their chips to foundries;
     
  ·  original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, which manufacture the epitaxial, or EPI, deposition machines used to deposit semiconductor layers, such as MST® , onto the base silicon wafer; and
     
  · electronic design automation companies, which make tools used throughout the industry to simulate the effects of using different materials, design structures and process technologies on the performance of semiconductor products.

 

We intend to generate revenue through licensing arrangements whereby foundries and IDMs pay us a license fee for their use of MST® technology in the manufacture of silicon wafers as well as a royalty for each silicon wafer or device they sell that incorporates our MST® technology. We also intend to enter into licensing arrangements with fabless semiconductor manufacturers pursuant to which we will charge them a royalty for each device they sell that incorporates our MST® technology.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 750 University Avenue, Suite 280, Los Gatos, California 95032, and our telephone number is (408) 442-5248.

 

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, any subsequently filed Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Current Report on Form 8-K, together with all of the other information appearing in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

 

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains, and any accompanying prospectus supplement will contain, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1993. Also, documents that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus, including documents that we subsequently file with the SEC, will contain forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are those that predict or describe future events or trends and that do not relate solely to historical matters. You can generally identify forward-looking statements as statements containing the words “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “believe,” “project,” “plan,” “assume” or other similar expressions, or negatives of those expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. All statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement regarding our business strategy, future operations, projected financial position, potential strategic transactions, proposed participation or casino projects, projected sales growth, estimated future revenues, cash flows and profitability, projected costs, potential outcome of litigation, potential sources of additional capital, future prospects, future economic conditions, the future of our industry and results that might be obtained by pursuing management's current plans and objectives are forward-looking statements.

 

You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements because the matters they describe are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Our forward-looking statements are based on the information currently available to us and speak only as of the date on the cover of this prospectus, the date of any prospectus supplement, or, in the case of forward-looking statements incorporated by reference, the date of the filing that includes the statement. Over time, our actual results, performance or achievements may differ from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements, and such difference might be significant and materially adverse to our security holders. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

We have identified some of the important factors that could cause future events to differ from our current expectations and they are described in this prospectus and supplements to this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors,” as well as in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, including under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in other documents that we may file with the SEC, all of which you should review carefully. Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, any combination of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, units and debt securities having an aggregate initial offering price not exceeding $30,000,000. In this prospectus, we refer to the common stock, preferred stock, warrants, units and debt securities that we may offer collectively as “securities.”

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue 47,500,000 shares of $0.001 par value common stock. Holders of shares of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders generally. Stockholders are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor, and in the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the company to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities. The holders of shares of common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or cumulative voting rights.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer other than our common stock. Each time we sell any of our securities under this prospectus, we will, to the extent required by law, provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. For more information, see “About this Prospectus.”

 

Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue 2,500,000 shares of $0.001 par value preferred stock. Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders (unless such stockholder action is required by applicable law or the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market), to designate and issue up to 2,500,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the designations, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each wholly unissued series, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. Shares of our preferred stock, if issued, will be fully paid and non-assessable.

 

We will fix the designations, powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

·the title and stated value;
·the number of shares we are offering;
·the liquidation preference per share;
·the purchase price;
·the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;
·whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;
·the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;
·the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;
·the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;
·any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

 

 

 

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·whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;
·whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;
·voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;
·preemptive rights, if any;
·restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
·whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;
·a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;
·the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;
·any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and
·any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

 

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, the state of our incorporation, provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class (or, in some cases, as a series) on an amendment to our certificate of incorporation if the amendment would change the par value or, unless the certificate of incorporation provided otherwise, the number of authorized shares of the class or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the class or series so as to adversely affect the class or series, as the case may be. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

 

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

 

Description of Debt Securities

 

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered.

 

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

 

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

 

 

 

 

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General

 

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities— Subordination.”

 

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities or any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

·the title and type of the debt securities;
·whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture, the terms on which they are subordinated;
·the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
·the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;
·the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;
·the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;
·the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;
·the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;
·the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;
·provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;
·any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;
·the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;
·any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;
·whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;
·any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;
·whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;
·whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;
·if the debt securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral security, pledge or other agreements; and
·any other material terms of the debt securities.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences. When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

 

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

  

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

 

 

 

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Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked.

 

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

 

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

·the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

·the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

·immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and
   
·certain other conditions are met.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

·failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

·failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

·default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

·certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

·any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

 

 

 

 

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If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

 

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

 

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, prior to a declaration of acceleration and subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto. For information as to the waiver of defaults, see “—Modification and Waiver.”

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

·the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

·the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

·the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

·the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

·during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

 

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

 

 

 

 7 
 

 

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of senior debt securities if:

 

·we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

·all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the senior debt securities would be treated as a taxable event, and beneficial owners of such debt securities would generally recognize any gain or loss on such senior debt securities. Purchasers of the senior debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

 

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any senior series of senior debt securities issued under the indentures.

 

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the senior debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

·We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

·There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due.

 

·We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

 

If we ever did accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

 

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the senior debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the senior debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

·We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the senior debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the senior debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

·We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the senior debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the senior debt securities ourselves when due.

 

 

 

 8 
 

 

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the senior debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

·to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

·to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

·to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture;

 

·to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

·to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

·to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

·to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

·to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

·to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

·to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

·to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

 

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

·extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

 

 

 

 9 
 

 

·changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

·reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

·waives a default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities;

 

·changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

·modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

·reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or to modify or amend or to waive certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

 

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

 

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

 

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

 

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

 

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

 

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

 

 

 

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Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

 

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

·all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

·all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

·all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

·all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

·all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

 

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

Description of Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of common stock, debt securities, and/or units from time to time. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from those securities.  If we issue warrants, they will be evidenced by warrant agreements or warrant certificates issued under one or more warrant agreements, which will be contracts between us and the holders of the warrants or an agent for the holders of the warrants. We encourage you to read the prospectus supplement that relates to any warrants we may offer, as well as the complete warrant agreement or warrant certificate that contain the terms of the warrants.  If we issue warrants, the forms of warrant agreements and warrant certificates, as applicable, relating to the warrants will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus, or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Description of Units

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination from time to time. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. If we issue units, they will be evidenced by unit agreements or unit certificates issued under one or more unit agreements, which will be contracts between us and the holders of the units or an agent for the holders of the units. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. We encourage you to read the prospectus supplement that relates to any units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement or unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, the forms of unit agreements and unit certificates, as applicable, relating to the units will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus, or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell our securities from time to time in any manner permitted by the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including any one or more of the following ways:

 

·through agents;

 

·to or through underwriters;

 

·to or through broker-dealers (acting as agent or principal);

 

·in “at the market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise; and/or

 

·directly to purchasers, through a specific bidding or auction process or otherwise.

 

The securities may be sold at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices relating to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.

 

Offers to purchase offered securities may be solicited by agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us will be set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a reasonable best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the offered securities so offered and sold.

 

We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of the offering of our securities, including:

 

·the name or names of any agents, underwriters or dealers;

 

·the purchase price of our securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

·any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

·any agency fees or underwriting discounts and commissions and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

·the public offering price;

 

·any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

·any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed.

 

 

 

 

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If offered securities are sold to the public by means of an underwritten offering, either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by the managing underwriters, we will execute an underwriting agreement with an underwriter or underwriters, and the names of the specific managing underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriters, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the terms of the transaction, including commissions, discounts and any other compensation of the underwriters and dealers, if any, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, which prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to make resales of the offered securities. If underwriters are utilized in the sale of the offered securities, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:

 

·transactions on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any other organized market where the securities may be traded;

 

·in the over-the-counter market;

 

·in negotiated transactions; or

 

·under delayed delivery contracts or other contractual commitments.

 

We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional offered securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price with additional underwriting discounts or commissions, as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we grant any over-allotment option, the terms of the over-allotment option will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may indemnify agents, underwriters and dealers against specified liabilities, including liabilities incurred under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments they may be required to make in respect of such liabilities. Agents, underwriters or dealers, or their respective affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or our respective affiliates, in the ordinary course of business.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, which is traded on The NASDAQ Capital Market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on any exchange and, in the case of our common stock, on any additional exchange. However, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not be obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the offered securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

 

To comply with the securities laws of certain states, if applicable, the securities offered by this prospectus will be offered and sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers.

 

In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

 

 13 
 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the issuance of the securities offered by this prospectus has been passed upon for us by Greenberg Traurig, LLP, Irvine, California.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of Marcum LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC's Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Our filings with the SEC also are available from the SEC's internet site at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. As permitted by SEC rules, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement that we may file, which form a part of the registration statement, do not contain all of the information that is included in the registration statement. The registration statement contains more information regarding us and our securities, including certain exhibits. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s website.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC permits us to “incorporate by reference” the information and reports we file with it. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to another document. The information that we incorporate by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC automatically updates and supersedes this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below, except to the extent information in those documents is different from the information contained in this prospectus, and all future documents filed with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (other than the portions thereof deemed to be furnished to the SEC pursuant to Item 9 or Item 12) until we terminate the offering of these securities:

 

·Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, which was filed on March 31, 2017;

 

·Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2017, which was filed on May 5, 2017;

 

·Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2017, which was filed on August 8, 2017;

 

·Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, which were filed on May 11, 2017 and June 16, 2017;

 

·The description of our common stock in our Form 8-A12B, which was filed on August 2, 2016, and any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating this description; and

 

·All documents we file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering made by way of this prospectus.

 

To the extent that any statement in this prospectus is inconsistent with any statement that is incorporated by reference and that was made on or before the date of this prospectus, the statement in this prospectus shall supersede such incorporated statement. The incorporated statement shall not be deemed, except as modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete and, in each instance, we refer you to the copy of each contract or document filed as an exhibit to our various filings made with the SEC.

 

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

Atomera Incorporated
Attn: Investor Relations
750 University Avenue, Suite 280
Los Gatos, California 95032
(408) 442-5248

 

 

 

 

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PART II – INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, all of which will be borne by us, are set forth in the following itemized table:

 

SEC Registration Fee  $3,477.00 
Printing Fees and Expenses   * 
Legal Fees and Expenses   * 
Accounting Fees and Expenses   * 
Transfer Agent Fees and Expenses   * 
Miscellaneous Fees and Expenses   * 
Total  $3,477.00 

______________________________

 

* Fees and expenses (other than the SEC registration fee to be paid upon the filing of this registration statement) will depend on the number and nature of the offerings, and cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of securities being offered will be included in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any persons who are, or are threatened to be made, parties to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of such corporation), by reason of the fact that such person was an officer, director, employee or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as an officer, director, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, provided that such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was illegal. Section 145 of the DGCL further authorizes a corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any indemnified person against any liability asserted against and incurred by such person in any indemnified capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, regardless of whether the corporation would otherwise have the power to indemnify such person under the DGCL.

 

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except for liability for any:

 

·breach of a director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders;

 

·act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

·unlawful payment of dividends or redemption of shares; or

 

·transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to, and our amended and restated bylaws provide that we must, indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL and also pay expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition upon delivery of an undertaking, by or on behalf of an indemnified person, to repay all amounts so advanced if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this section or otherwise.

 

 

 

 

 II-1 
 

 

As permitted by the DGCL, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and certain of our officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

 

We have an insurance policy covering our officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.

 

Any underwriting agreement or similar agreement that we enter into in connection with an offer of securities pursuant to this registration statement may provide for indemnification by any underwriters of us, our directors, our officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Insofar as the forgoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

The exhibits to this registration statement are listed below in the Exhibit Index.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)       To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2)       That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post- effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 

 

 

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(3)       To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)       That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date, or

 

(5)       That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of an undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)       That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)       That (1) for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b) (1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective, and (2) for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 

 

 

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(8)       Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(9)       The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Los Gatos, California on September 19, 2017.

 

  Atomera Incorporated
   
  By: /s/  Scott A. Bibaud
    Scott A. Bibaud
    Chief Executive Officer  

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement has been signed on September 19, 2017 by the following persons in the capacities indicated.

 

Signature   Title
     
     
/s/ *   Chairman of the Board
John D. Gerber  
     
/s/ Scott A. Bibaud   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Scott A. Bibaud   (Principal Executive Officer)
     
/s/ Francis Laurencio   Chief Financial Officer and Director
Francis Laurencio   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
     
/s/ *   Director
Erwin Trautmann    
     
/s/ *   Director
C. Rinn Cleavelin, Ph.D.    
     
/s/ *   Director
Rolf Stadheim    
     
/s/ *   Director
Steven K. Shevick    

 

*By: /s/ Scott A. Bibaud
  Scott A. Bibaud,
  Attorney-in-fact

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit No.   Description
     
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement *
     
3.1   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant **
     
3.2  

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant **

     
3.3   Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant **
     
3.4   Certificate of Amendment to Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant **
     
4.1   Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock *
     
4.2   Form of Senior Indenture ***
     
4.3   Form of Subordinated Indenture ***
     
4.4   Form of Senior Note ***
     
4.5   Form of Subordinated Note ***
     
4.6   Form of Warrant Agreement *
     
4.7   Form of Unit Agreement *
     
5.1   Opinion and Consent of Greenberg Traurig, LLP ***
     
23.1   Consent of Marcum LLP
     
23.4   Consent of Greenberg Traurig, LLP ***
     
24.1   Power of Attorney ***
     
25.1   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 ****
     
25.2   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 ****
     

____________________________

*To be filed by amendment to this registration statement, or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference into this registration statement, in each case in connection with a particular offering of the securities.
**Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 30, 2016.
*** Previously filed
**** To be subsequently filed, if applicable, under the electronic form type “305B2.”

 

 

 

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Exhibit 23.1

 

 

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm’s Consent

 

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement of Atomera Incorporated on Amendment No. 1 to Form S-3 (File No. 333-219782) of our report dated March 31, 2017, with respect to our audits of the financial statements of Atomera Incorporated as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and for the years then ended appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Atomera Incorporated for the year ended December 31, 2016. We also consent to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the Prospectus, which is part of this Registration Statement.

 

/s/ Marcum llp

 

Marcum llp

New York, NY

September 19, 2017